Wednesday, December 31, 2014

A Biblical Case for Natural Law by David Van Drunen

A Biblical Case for Natural Law by David Van Drunen
Acton Institute, Kindle Edition. 

I very much appreciated the author's Living in God's Two Kingdoms, and thought I'd have quick look at this brief monograph on natural law. In the work just referenced Van Drunen makes the point that in the 'common kingdom' the believer lives and works alongside the non-believer, both being subject to the same ethical rules. A Christian plumber is as obliged to fit a central heating system that is safe, economical and does not leak as his non-Christian colleague. That's fine when it comes to plumbing and the likes, but to what shared moral code may believer and non-believer appeal when it comes to ethical concerns more generally? According to Van Drunen, that's where natural law comes into its own.

He makes the case that natural law is the revelation of the righteousness of God to and in his human image bearers. Even fallen human beings have a sense of right and wrong. Paul condemns certain sins as 'against nature' and charges sinners with willful rebellion against what they know to be right, Romans 1:18, 19, 26, 27, 32. See also Romans 2:14-15, which Van Drunen takes as evidence that although Gentiles could not be judged for breaking the Ten Commandments, of which they had not heard, they would nevertheless be judged according to the standards of natural law to which their consciences bore witness. 

After devoting a chapter to Natural Law and the Two Kingdoms Doctrine, Van Drunen discusses how natural law applies in the Civil Kingdom and the Spiritual Kingdom. He discerns three main elements of natural law in Scripture that apply to all people in the civil realm regardless of their faith position, 'things that should not be done', the 'fear of God' (see Genesis 20),  and 'a common humanity' (see Job 31:13-15, Amos 1). 
As far as the spiritual kingdom is concerned, the writer argues that as the redemption involves the renewal of the image of God, a key component in natural law, that the "present, earthly existence of the spiritual kingdom cannot be at odds with that good creation and its natural law; it far transcends them." (VanDrunen, David (2012-03-20). A Biblical Case for Natural Law (Kindle Locations 858-859). Acton Institute. Kindle Edition). Scripture does not set aside natural law in the ethical life of the spiritual kingdom. Old Testament wisdom literature incorporates the insights  of non-Israelite proverbial sayings. Paul's 'household codes' in Ephesians 5-6 and Colossians 3-4 reflect Greco-Roman cultural norms, even as he frames his teaching in a distinctively Christian way. He wanted Christians to be mindful of the moral expectations of their non-Christian neighbours, see 1 Thessalonians 4:12, 1 Timothy 3:7 for example. And so Van Drunen concludes,
 As long as the church is a pilgrim in the present age, believers must conduct themselves in the church and in the world according to the nature of things and with critical yet appreciative appropriation of the world’s cultural achievements. (VanDrunen, David (2012-03-20). A Biblical Case for Natural Law (Kindle Locations 1001-1003). Acton Institute. Kindle Edition). 
It would be difficult to gainsay the basis thesis of this monograph, namely that natural law has biblical sanction and that it has applications both in the civil and spiritual realms. I also agree with the writer's 'two kingdoms' stance. But reading reading this work raised a number of questions for me:
  • What happens when a culture becomes so corrupted that 'things that should not be done' are often praised to the heavens, where a sense of 'common humanity' is eroded by racism, and there is 'no fear of God before their eyes'? A culture's sense of what is 'natural' may need to be challenged and corrected in the light of God's self-revelation in Holy Scripture. 
  • Which leads to another question; What is the relationship between the the cultural impact of biblical teaching and natural law? It was once thought that it was entirely 'natural' for white people to enslave black people. It took a sustained application of biblical norms to western culture to overturn that view so that nowadays slavery is viewed with abhorrence as a most unnatural infringement of human liberty and dignity.
  • How may a convincing case be made for natural law as a moral norm in a postmodern setting, where moral norms are viewed with suspicion and what may be viewed as 'natural' is fluid and subjective? Witness the widespread approval of same sex marriage in western society. 
  • To what extent may the church appeal directly to the ethical norms of Scripture  in its public theology? Believers may not be able to throw proof texts at every political policy and cultural development. There is no 'Christian view' of politics, economics, or plumbing. But does that mean that biblical principles on matters such as marriage, the unique dignity of human life and so on have no place in public discourse as biblical principles because only natural law applies in the civil kingdom? (See Dan Strange, Not Ashamed! The Sufficiency of Scripture for Public Theology
  • In terms of Reformed theology, the Westminster Confession teaches that the civil laws of Old Testament Israel should not to be applied as they are in the civil realm today, as under the New Testament there is a distinction between church and state, "To them also, as a body politic, He gave sundry judicial laws, which expired together with the State of that people; not obliging under any now, further than the general equity thereof may require." (WCF 19:4). While the confession acknowledges 'the light of nature' (1:1), it nevertheless allows that the 'general equity' of Old Testament teaching on civil matters does have enduring relevance for that realm under the New Testament, thus emphasising the applicability of biblical principles in the public square. How does Van Drunen's thesis harmonise with the stance taken by the confession?  
It's no doubt a bit much to expect the writer to address these questions in a brief monograph, but I'd be interested in what he had to say by way of response. Maybe I need to read his larger work, Natural Law and the Two Kingdoms: A Study in the Development of Reformed Social Thought? Of the making of many books there is no end...

Sunday, December 21, 2014

Christmas antonymns

When the Word was made flesh

The omnipresent One was enclosed in space
The omnipotent One embraced weakness
The omniscient One became ignorant

The eternal One entered time
The invisible One appeared
The unchanging One became transient 

The impassible One was stirred
The blessed One knew grief
The immortal One tasted death

The Creator became a creature
The Provider became needy
The Saviour needed deliverance

And yet

He became what he was not without ceasing to be what he was.

Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Good tidings we bring

The title is borrowed from the seasonal song, ‘We wish you a merry Christmas’, which kind of begins OK and then degenerates into a repeated demand for ‘figgy pudding’. Whatever that is. The ditty promises, ‘Good tidings we bring to you and your kin’. But doesn’t spell out what those ‘good tidings’ are. That’s when then the demanding ‘figgy pudding’ with menaces bit comes in. ‘Random’, as teenagers might say. 

And we could have done with some good news with all the bad stuff that’s hitting the headlines these days, but there we are.

When the angel of the Lord was sent to announce the birth of Jesus Christ to some unsuspecting shepherds he was a little bit more forthcoming with regard to ‘good tidings’ saying, “Fear not, for behold, I bring you good news of great joy that will be for all the people. For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, who is Christ the Lord.” (Luke 2:10-11).

Now that is good news. The long-expected Messiah has been born. He is described as a “Saviour”. His very name, Jesus means, “the Lord saves”. He came into the world to bring us forgiveness and peace with God through his death on the cross. By his resurrection power those who believe in him have the hope of everlasting life.

Good tidings we bring. 

See website for details of Providence & Ebenezer carol services. 

Thursday, December 11, 2014

Affinity Theological Study Conference 2015: Union with Christ

Affinity logo

Next February 25-27 the conference will be considering the theme of 'Union with Christ' with the help of papers provided in advance by Cor Bennema, Tim Ward, Bob Letham, John Fesko, David McKay and Paul Wells.

The format of the conference is considered to be unique by many people who attend. Carl Trueman said of the 2011 event that it was 'probably the most helpful' conference he had ever attended: 'The structure was great: speakers sent papers in advance; they introduced them briefly at the conference; the conference then broke into small groups for discussion; and then reconvened for plenary debate. True conversational theology... the discussion groups, consisting of academics and pastors, pushed everything to its implications for the local church... differences were respected but not relativised; and good humour and thoughtfulness characterised everything.'
I'd second Carl's words of commendation. If theological study and discussion is your thing, then check it out here

Monday, December 01, 2014

Dr. Martyn Lloyd-Jones and Evangelicals in Wales by Dr. D Eryl Davies

Dr. Martyn Lloyd-Jones and Evangelicals in Wales
Bala Ministers’ Conference 1955-2014,
by Dr. D Eryl Davies, Bryntirion Press, 2014, 442pp

Dr. Martyn Lloyd-Jones' influence on Evangelicalism in Wales did not wane when he moved from the Land of His Fathers to become Minister of Westminster Chapel in London in the 1930’s. In some ways his impact on Evangelicalism in Wales grew during the years of his London-based ministry. A new generation of young men converted in the 1940’s and called to pastor churches in the theologically mixed denominations looked to him for spiritual inspiration, theological guidance, personal advice and leadership.

Some of those men organised an annual Ministers’ Conference in the mid 1950’s that nowadays meets each June in the beautiful setting of Bala, north Wales. From its beginnings until he last attended the conference in 1978 Lloyd-Jones had a huge impact on the gathering. He chaired the discussion sessions and often gave the closing conference address. The ethos of Bala Ministers’ Conference was very much shaped by Lloyd-Jones, with its strong emphasis on prayer, preaching and revival.

The period in which Lloyd-Jones attended conference was one of great change for Evangelicalism in Wales. Many ministers faced the issue of secession from the mixed denominations. The challenges thrown up by the ecumenical movement forced them to go back to first principles and ask, ‘What is a Christian?’ and ‘What is the Church?’ The burgeoning Charismatic scene prompted reflection on what is and what is not a genuine work of the Spirit.   

Attending the conference as a younger Minister in the early 1990’s it seemed to me that the answer to almost every problem raised for discussion was, ‘we need a revival’. Discussions were often brought to a juddering halt when an old timer quoted something that ‘the Doctor’ had said some years earlier as if he was an infallible oracle. However, as Davies points out Lloyd-Jones would have deplored such a tendency and always encouraged men to think for themselves. While he believed in revival, he was also very much an evangelist and spoke of the need to be active in the Lord’s service in season and out of season.

The conference today seeks to maintain its focus on preaching the word in the power of the Spirit, while endeavouring to equip men to minister effectively and fruitfully in the contemporary setting. If it wasn't for my dislike of the dormitory sleeping arrangements, or, more accurately, the not sleeping because of other Ministers' snoring arrangements, I'd probably attend more frequently myself. 

Eryl Davies tells the story Lloyd-Jones and the Bala Ministers’ Conference with gripping simplicity. The bite-sized chapters make for easy reading and a fast-paced narrative. The author is not unaware of criticisms of the man and the conference and seeks to respond to them honestly and graciously. The final two chapters attempt to sketch out a theology of Word and Spirit in preaching. A number of appendices include notes on Lloyd-Jones’ addresses at Bala. His stirring emphasis on our need to see the living God at work among his people deserves to be heard afresh today. 

* Reviewed for Evangelical Times

Friday, October 31, 2014

A Day at the Tower of London

White Tower
Blood-red moat
Traitor's Gate
Canon Shard
Dragon's roar
Night lights

Monday, October 20, 2014

On promoting 'British Values'

Talk of 'British values' is making waves in the world of education. Great Britain has often prided itself on its moral superiority over 'lesser breeds without the law'. But perhaps our 'values' haven't always been as pure as the driven snow. One tawdry example will suffice. The Daoguang Emperor of China was  rather fed up with the his country being flooded with illegal imports of opium by British merchants. He dispatched experienced Qing official, Lin Zexu to stamp out the drug trade. Lin promptly rounded up the smugglers and impounded 20,000 cases of British-owned opium. The response of Whig foreign secretary Lord Palmerston to this outrageous violation of free trade was swift and brutal. Two ships of the line, two frigates and two flat-bottomed steamers were dispatched, plus transport vessels with the capacity to carry six or seven thousand troops. The aim of this bristling flotilla was to blast the Chinese authorities into submission. Palmerston's gunboat diplomacy worked. The Daoguang Emperor's feeble junks were no match for the likes of  HMS Nemesis, an iron warship armed with rocket launchers and 32-pounder guns. And so it was that British opium once more flowed into China and from thence into the veins of its users, ruining countless thousands of lives. A fine example of 'British values', free trade and all that, or a shameful episode in our history? What do you reckon?

It was the furore over the Birmingham 'Trojan Horse' that affair led to a call that all schools should promote 'British values'. Defined as:
  • democracy
  • the rule of law
  • individual liberty
  • mutual respect
  • tolerance of those of different faiths and beliefs
Interestingly these 'values' were first set out as being distinctively British as part of the government's 'Prevent Strategy' in 2011, designed to combat Islamic extremism (see here). Given what happened in Birmingham, one might be tempted to say that this strategy was none too successful in preventing the spread of extremist ideology. Undoubtedly something must be done at a number of levels to stop schools being infiltrated by Islamic extremism. Ofsted has questions to answer here, as schools it had previously rated Outstanding are now in Special Measures because they failed to protect students from being exposed to extremist ideology. Local Authorities did little to stop the rot despite complaints from Headteachers concerning the conduct of governors who were bent on imposing Islamic beliefs and practices on non-denominational schools. Not to mention the failure of the Department of Education to prevent academies sinking into a swamp of extremism. There are signs that what was uncovered in Birmingham was merely the tip of the iceberg, with similar issues coming to light in schools in Bradford and Tower Hamlets. But whatever their own failings in this area, the main response of the education authorities to these cases seems to be that of ensuring all schools promote 'British values'. And that is the matter to which I give attention in this post. 

The very idea of linking values with nationhood is of course risible. As the sorry episode at the top of this article shows, our 'values' have not always been noble and true. Democracy in the sense of the right of all adult citizens to elect a government that is 'of the people, by the people and for the people' has not yet been in operation for a hundred years. In the heyday of British Imperialism 'the rule of law' sometimes meant little more than, 'Britannia Rules the Waves: buy our dope, or you're toast'. In any case, labeling the five 'values' as being in some sense uniquely British is an insult to other nations who hold to them as proudly and tenaciously as we ourselves. Are Johnny foreigners' values somehow substandard? No doubt the American, German, French and Australian peoples to say no more might resent such an implication. 

That the five listed 'values' are prized in Britain as well as other lands is the result of a complex number of factors including admiration for the democratic ideals of ancient Greece, the impact of the Christian faith on western culture, notions of tolerance and freedom developed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and so forth. The very notion of uniquely 'British values' is misleading and ever so slightly chauvinistic

However they are labelled in terms of national ownership, it is now the duty of governors to make sure that the five core values are being promoted as part of their school's SMSC and PSHE curricula and also that students are taught about different beliefs in their Religious Studies lessons. Governance should operate on democratic principles, including the regular election of Chairs and Vice-Chairs, collective decision making and ensuring a separation of powers by maintaining the strategic/operational divide. Governors should be subject to the rule of law, working within the legal framework of the education system. They should model 'mutual respect' as people of different faiths or no faith work together in pursuit of the common good of their school. 

It would be difficult to argue that school children should not be taught the importance of the five core values. Helping young people to understand the importance of democracy and the rule of law, and promoting a tolerant attitude towards those who may differ from us is all part and parcel of preparing them for adult life in modern Britain. However, problems may arise when measures designed to prevent the spread of extremist Islam are imposed upon schools where that is hardly a pressing danger. Overzealous Oftsed inspectors may be as interested in a school's commitment to political correctness as in assessing its Pupil Achievement or Quality of Teaching. Signs of that happening are already becoming all too apparent, herehere and here. What about 'tolerance for those of different faiths and beliefs' when it comes to schools with a faith-based ethos that, while noting the legal redefinition of marriage and making their students aware of it, continue to teach traditional marriage as the norm? What about the 'individual liberty' of governors, senior leaders and teachers when it comes to such matters? Are seemingly binding guarantees that were given when the Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013 was passed worth the paper they were written on? 

The five 'British values' are perfectly unobjectionable in themselves. But there is a legitimate concern that they may be used as a mask for a secularising agenda that is designed to squeeze faith-based views out of the education system. If so, where does that leave Education Secretary Nicky Morgan, who voted against same sex marriage on the grounds of her faith (see here)? Will one of Sir Michael Wilshaw's PC hit squads soon be paying her a visit? I think not. Sauce for the goose isn't always sauce for the gander.  

We're in a right Pickle when the Christian faith that helped shape so-called 'British values' is in danger of being sidelined in favour of hard nosed secularism. Some have used the 'Trojan horse' saga to argue that all state-funded schools should be made to forsake their religious ethos. But if history is anything to go by forcing faith out of public life doesn't guarantee that mutual respect and tolerance will prevail. That's not exactly what happened in Robespierre's France or Stalin's Russia now, is it? If the promotion of  'British values'  in schools is policed in a doctrinaire and insensitive way, measures intended to safeguard liberty and tolerance could have the exact opposite effect. How un-British would that be?

Tuesday, October 14, 2014

Ruth and Billy Graham: The Legacy of a Couple, by Hanspeter Nüesch

Ruth and Billy Graham: The Legacy of a Couple,
by Hanspeter Nüesch, Monarch Books, 2014, 378pp

When this book arrived for review I didn’t know quite what to make of it. It promised an intimate biography of a world famous couple; Billy and Ruth Graham. That the author seemed so breathlessly awestruck at his first meeting with the Grahams didn’t exactly dispel my misgivings. The thought of having to wade through over three hundred pages of sycophantic hagiography stretched my commitment to book reviewing almost to breaking point. But from a misguided sense of duty I decided to plough on.

While I can’t exactly say that I’m overjoyed that I did, there are some good things in this work. Nüesch isn’t blind to the faults of his hero-couple and paints a very human portrait of the well-known 20th century Evangelist and his wife. Their commitment to each other and the Lord whom they served is both endearing and challenging. Nüesch probes the way in which their lives were marked by partnership, authenticity, humility, integrity and so on. Ruth was evidently a woman of spirited piety and a tower of strength to her husband.  

Nüesch tells the story of Graham’s emergence as globetrotting Evangelist and friend of US Presidents. He describes some of the preacher’s key achievements, such as the founding Christianity Today and inspiring the Congress of World Evangelisation, 1974 and its successors.

Theologically, Nüesch places the Grahams on the Calvinistic side of the spectrum. Billy certainly believed that only God can save lost sinners by the gospel preached in the power of the Spirit. But his practice of issuing calls for people to come to the front to make a public commitment to Jesus smacked more of Finney-style revivalism. The writer says little about Graham’s accommodating stance towards Roman Catholicism. Indeed at one point he sums up Billy and Ruth’s commitment to ‘compassionate living’ by quoting the words of Mother Teresa.     

Stylistically the book veers from an intimate account of the faith and life of a couple to passages of conventional biography that describe Billy’s evangelistic ministry and other endeavours. Nüesch can sometimes be a little preachy in his eagerness to set forth the Grahams as shining examples of Christian faithfulness. While not entirely hagiographical, the writer fails to maintain the critical distance between himself and his subjects that is necessary for a rounded biographical portrait. This title is not altogether without value, but putting it kindly, I doubt it should be at the top of anyone’s reading list.

*Reviewed for Evangelical Times

Friday, October 10, 2014

Systematics for God’s Glory: God, creation, decrees and providence by Jonathan Bayes

Systematic Theology 1:
Systematics for God’s Glory: God, creation, decrees and providence
by Jonathan Bayes, Carey Printing Press, 2013 edition, 256pp

It is vital for all Christians not simply to be familiar with the stories of the Bible and its basic plot-line, but also to understand the teachings of Holy Scripture in a logical and systematic way. That is the purpose of systematic theology. Preachers especially need a solid grasp of the way in which biblical revelation hangs together as a coherent whole. Having that will better enable them to preach ‘the whole counsel of God’. Some works of systematic theology are forbiddingly large, dry and technical, but Jonathan Bayes has succeeded on producing a systematic theology for the people of God.

This is the first contribution to a projected three volume set of systematics. As the subtitle suggests, the author covers the subjects of God, creation, decrees and providence. His method throughout is first to grapple with the biblical teaching on the topic in hand, second to draw on the insights of the creeds and confessions of the church, third to chart key historical developments of the doctrine, and finally to conclude with some words of personal reflection and application. This approach can seem a little formulaic by the end of the book. It has its uses, but there are also limitations. For instance in the chapter on the Doctrine of God, the author's exploration of the biblical material is almost exclusively concerned with God's mercy. Discussion of God's oneness, power, spirituality, eternality and omniscience is divided between the creedal and historical sections of the chapter. It might have better had study of those attributes been rooted in the explicit witness of Scripture rather than the teachings of the church, however valuable. The approach works better in the chapter on the Doctrine of the Trinity, where the creeds and confessions use extrabiblical language in order to safeguard important biblical truths over and against heretical views. The writer also helpfully  charts the important contributions made to the church's understanding of this great doctrine by Augustine and Calvin. 

Bayes sees systematics as 'an attempt to have a tidy faith'.p. xi. That seems to imply  that the truths of Bible are distributed in a rather haphazard fashion and it is the task of the theologian to arrange the jumbled pieces of the jigsaw to form a clear picture. But that is to do disservice to God's self-revelation in Holy Scripture. Biblical revelation is historical and progressive in character, but that does not mean that it is untidy or disjointed. There is more to systematics than a tidying up exercise. Theology is an endeavour to think God's thoughts after him and articulate God's talk after him. Systematic theology is faith seeking understanding of what Scripture as a whole has to say on key doctrinal topics set out in a logical order. In addition, theology is meant to be practical. According to John Frame, "Theology is the application of the Word by persons to the world and to all areas of human life." (Salvation Belongs to the Lord by John Frame, P&R, 2006, p. 79). Happily, as mentioned above, Bayes' practice is better than his stated approach. His systematics is a work of holy reason that is intended to promote holy living. 

In some instances systematic theology can seem like a sequence of logically ordered doctrinal statements backed up by a long string of proof texts. Bayes very helpfully avoids that pitfall by giving careful attention to  key Bible texts and tracing the development of biblical themes in the course of the Scripture's unfolding story. Biblical theology is thus placed at the service of systematic theology, which is as it should be. The writer’s handling of the biblical material is fresh and insightful. He is evidently familiar with the original Scripture languages and draws on a range of commentators to help unfold the meaning of the texts he draws to our attention. But all this is done with a light touch that does not envelop the reader in thickets of abstruse scholarly exegesis.  

The creedal and historical aspects of the work are a useful reminder that we are not the first generation of believers to approach the Bible and inquire as to its meaning. We have much to learn from the thoughts of those who have gone before us. The creeds and confessions of the church serve as helpful summaries of the biblical doctrine, often written against a background of intense theological controversy. Knowledge of these documents can help us to detect and reject old errors that often present themselves in new clothing. While Bayes gives welcome attention to the theological heritage of the church, he also interacts with present day concerns, tackling issues such as biblical inerrancy and ‘Open Theism’. However, Bayes is sometimes content to summarise the teaching of creedal and confessional statements in his own words, or to cite commentaries on the these documents rather than taking us back to the sources themselves. That is especially the case in the chapter on the Doctrine of Providence, which is a shame given the rich teaching on providence found in the words of the great Reformed Confessions and Catechisms (see here). Ad fontes, please Dr. Bayes. Having said that, a number of ancient creeds are reproduced in full in the book's appendices, which is good to see.

The author’s stance is unashamedly Reformed, but there is no sense that he is attempting to foist a prefabricated system onto the Bible. Rather, he shows that Reformed theology accords with the Word of God and is consistent with the best insights of church history. Biblical doctrine is meant to stir the soul to faith, action and worship. Bayes’ handling of the themes covered in this book is practical in its orientation and doxological in its goal. Reading it reflectively and prayerfully will help enable the people of God to play their roles in the great drama of God’s redeeming grace.

This series is especially aimed at preachers. It will be of special benefit for 'lay preachers' who may have had little theological training. Pastors will also find it helpful, but this is an entry level systematics that is no substitute for larger works such as The Reformed Dogmatics by Herman Bavinck. Any Christian who wishes to deepen their understanding of the great doctrines of the Bible will do well to pursue what looks from the first volume to be set of books that will enhance our vision of the glory of God.

* An edited version of this review will appear in Evangelical Times

Thursday, October 02, 2014

Thank God for Harvest!

Gratitude is the antidote for grumpiness. People who think that the world owes them a living are always quick to complain about anything and everything. You know the sort. But the fact is that whatever our problems in life, we have a lot for which to be thankful. We live in a beautiful part of the country with green fields, rolling hills and trees decked in their autumn hues. Our local shops are packed with plentiful supplies or food and drinks. It’s easy to take these things for granted. But a moment’s thought should make us grateful for rather than grumpily about our lot in life.

Some of the Psalms in the Bible are full of exuberant thanks to God for his goodness in creating this world and so richly providing for our needs. Psalm 65 pictures valleys clothed with grain shouting for joy. If the very fields proclaim God’s praise, then we should also thank him everything that  comes to us from his hands.

Psalm 65 also speaks of God providing atonement for our transgressions. That was the gift that cost God the most to give. He sent his Son the Lord Jesus Christ into our world of selfishness and ingratitude to die on the cross for our sins. Through faith in Jesus we receive God’s offer of forgiveness and the gift of eternal life. What a giving and forgiving God! Recognising that whatever we may possess is a gift from God should make us grateful to him and generous towards others who are in need. 

All good gifts around us
Are sent from heaven above,
Then thank the Lord, O thank the Lord

For all His love.

* From the October edition of News & Views, West Lavington Parish Magazine.
Harvest Thanksgiving Services at the usual times this Sunday. 

Thursday, September 18, 2014

Scotland: Vote No

Scotland: Say 'yes' to over 300 years of shared history, values  and common endeavour. Vote 'No'. 

Wednesday, September 10, 2014

Scotland: please stay!I

My contribution to The Spectator's Stay! campaign, 

One of the great things about being British is a sense of dual identity. I’m a proud Welshman living in England. I have a deep love of my homeland; its history, culture and rugby playing tradition. But belonging to a small nation could become a rather parochial and inward looking affair. That Wales alongside Scotland, Northern Ireland and England belong to something bigger than their constituent parts helps ensure that Celtic and English patriotism doesn't degenerate into a narrow, sectarian nationalism. We can focus on what unites as well as our distinctives as we strive to make Great Britain a great place for all its citizens to live.

The things achieved by the United Kingdom have been the fruits of our common endeavour. Together we have ensured that all adults, whether rich or poor, male or female get to decide on who governs us at the UK level, in our devolved Assemblies and the Scottish Parliament.   The National Health Service is funded by the wealth generated by the whole of the United Kingdom so that all our people can obtain the treatment they need when they need it, free at the point of need. 

I could go on to mention the technological advances of the Industrial Revolution, driven by English entrepreneurialism, inspired by Scottish Engineering brilliance, forged by Irish labour and fired by Welsh coal. What of British ideas of freedom, tolerance and democracy that have served as a beacon of hope for the world, especially as we stood shoulder by shoulder to defend them in two World Wars?

We're better together. Please stay. 

Thursday, September 04, 2014

Living in God's Two Kingdoms by David VanDrunen

Image result for living in god's two kingdoms

Living in God's Two Kingdoms: A Biblical Vision for Christianity and Culture,
David VanDrunen, Crossway, 2010. Kindle Edition

Christians should be doing stuff, like transforming the culture and redeeming society and that. Preaching the gospel so that people get saved and nurturing disciples in the church is alright, but we've got to get with the world-changing, holistic, transformational program. What we need is a distinctively Christian approach to politics, education, the arts, medicine, engineering, plumbing, fast food serving and rubbish collecting. Anything less would be Pietism and we all know that's a Bad Thing. And anyway, if  believers don't make all kinds of stuff go Christian how's the new creation going to happen?   

Whoa up a bit. David VanDrunen's essential thesis is that it isn't in fact the duty of Christians to try and transform, redeem or Christianise the culture at all. 'What?' you may say, 'is he a Pietist,  or something?' Nooo. Good 'ol Calvinist. He seeks to recover the 'two kingdoms' vision of the Reformers as a way of engaging with the transformationalist tendencies of the likes of Tom Wright, Tim Keller and other influential figures. 

Essentially it boils down to this: there are two kingdoms. There is the 'common kingdom' which is ruled by God under the terms of the Nohaic covenant established in Genesis 9. Then there is the 'kingdom of God'. That is God's saving rule made known in the world through the covenant of grace in its various manifestations, from the Abrahamic to the new covenant. The believer belongs both to the kingdom of God and the common kingdom. That was the case under both old and new covenants as VanDrunen demonstrates.

In the common kingdom believers rub shoulders with non-believers as they engage in a variety of cultural pursuits including politics, work, education, the arts and so on. The believer will seek to honour the Lord in this context, but the same ethical standards will be expected of a Christian accountant, for example, as a non-Christian one. It is nonsense therefore to speak of 'Christian accountancy' or 'Christian plumbing'. Christian as well as non-Christian plumbers are both obliged to install central heating systems that don't leak like a sieve. OK, you would hope that a plumber who is a Christian wouldn't charge a little old lady the earth for fixing a dripping tap. But fair pricing policies aren't the exclusive preserve of believers. That's life in the common kingdom. 

The kingdom of God is made a visible reality in the church, the gathered people of God who meet to hear God's word proclaimed, partake of the sacraments and be built up in the faith. Ministerial power in the church is different from the power entrusted to rulers in the common kingdom. It is non-coercive and is limited to the preaching and application of the Word. Ministers must be not to overstep the mark by giving believers detailed instruction on how they should operate in the common kingdom in terms of involvement in politics, voting intentions and so on. Yes, general biblical principles must be worked out in the whole of life, but Christian liberty must be honoured when it comes to matters like political choices and decisions regarding how the children of believers should be educated. If the Bible doesn't say, either explicitly or by implication, 'thou shalt vote Conservative, or Labour, or Lib Dem, or Ukip, or Yes or No to Scottish independence' then pastors should not go beyond the teaching of Scripture when ministering to the people of God. The same goes for parental choices regarding their children's education, whether home, Christian School, State School, or whatever. 

VanDrunen calls for a biblical realism when it comes to the extent to which the world can be 'Christianised' by the activism of believers. The aim of the Christian is not to 'transform' or 'redeem' the common kingdom, for the form of this world is passing away. Redemption and transformation are only possible in the kingdom of God. That is not to say that believers may not strive to be 'salt and light' and try to make the world a better place. But even when they do that, their works in the common kingdom don't help to usher in the new creation. Christ has guaranteed that glorious future by completing the work God initially entrusted to Adam in Genesis 1 & 2. 

On which point I think that it's a blunder on the author's part to conflate the 'cultural mandate' of Genesis 1:26-28 with the 'covenant of works' in Genesis 2. The 'cultural mandate' was issued to man as man 'male and female' as God's image-bearers. It continues despite the fall, but is only finally fulfilled in Christ and the new creation. Adam's 'covenant of works' role, however does not continue. It was made with Adam specifically as federal representative of all humanity. We should certainly not think of ourselves as finishing off what he failed to do by our works in the common kingdom. Christ has accomplished that on our behalf by his redeeming work. As Herman Bavinck said, 'Christ takes is not to the beginning, but the end of the road that Adam had to walk.' Nevertheless, the langue of multiplication in Genesis 1 is also used of God's 'new humanity' in the Abrahamic covenant, Exodus 1 and also in Acts of the church. The cultural mandate of dominion and multiplication continues in the 'common kingdom', but grace perfects nature in the 'redemptive kingdom', Hebrews 2: 5-9, Revelation 7:9-10.

That said, I agree with VanDrunen's biblically argued cause for the two kingdoms view. It has helped me to think through one or two issues personally. Especially when it comes to involvement in the activities of the common kingdom.  As a governor in a local state secondary school it is not my duty to try and 'Christianise' the educational establishment in which I am involved, but rather to operate in line with the rules and guidelines set down for all governors irrespective of their faith. Yes, my faith informs and influences my approach to governance, as with everything else, but trying to 'redeem' the school would be misplaced. The church is the locus of God's redemptive activity, not the world of education, or any other cultural pursuits in the common kingdom for that matter. The transfomationist agenda is a grandiose distraction from getting on with the Great Commission that Jesus has laid upon the church. That's enough for us to be getting on with.